In the Arctic areas and regions of mountain tundra are found burrowing marmots, ground squirrels, cold-water fish such as grayling and trout, and an occasional bear. Alaskan coastal waters are the habitat of a number of large mammals, including walrus and fur seals. Caribou and wapiti spend summers on the tundra but migrate into the conifer forest for winter. The hardwood forests of the eastern United States contain elk, black bears, deer, foxes, raccoons, skunks, squirrels, and a diversity of small birds. Along the Gulf of Mexico coast live larger and more colourful birds such as pelicans, flamingos, and green kingfishers; as well as alligators and warm-water fish such as catfish. Several varieties of venomous snakes are also found there.
Bison (buffalo) are popularly associated with the grasslands, although in fact they once ranged over most of eastern North America before becoming nearly extinct through hunting; they now exist only in captivity or in protected areas. Gophers, rabbits, prairie dogs, ferrets, and other burrowing species are the creatures best suited to the grasslands, which were once swept by fires. The mountainous western states, especially Alaska, are the last refuges in the United States of most big-game animals: elk, pronghorn, moose, deer, bighorn sheep, mountain goats, timber wolves, and, in a few remote areas, brown bears. The Kodiak bear, the largest carnivore in North America, is found in Alaska.
The deserts have fewer small animals, and almost no large ones; kangaroo rats, lizards, and wide-ranging birds are typical animals in such harsh regions. The animals of Hawaii include many endemic species, but many of these have been driven nearly to extinction by human alteration of the habitat. Hawaii’s only indigenous mammal is the bat. "USA" © Emmanuel BUCHOT, Encarta, Wikipedia
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