Alluvial soils, deposited by floodwaters over thousands of years, cover the Red River valley, Mississippi Alluvial Plain, and other stream valleys. Although erosion has been slight on this level land, the use of improper agricultural methods has resulted in the depletion of organic matter in the soils and consequently in a loss of natural fertility. However, with the use of fertilizers and proper farming methods, these soils have again become productive. Cotton, sugarcane, and other crops are raised on these alluvial soils, and crop yields are generally high.
Red and yellow podzolic soils predominate in the upland sections of Louisiana. These soils are not inherently fertile, being low in organic matter, but are easily worked and highly productive when fertilized. However, the rolling topography of these upland sections makes these soils susceptible to erosion.
In southwestern Louisiana prairie soils are underlain by a nearly impervious clay layer that contains water above it, making the region well suited to irrigated rice cultivation. In a belt of coastal marshland soils along the Gulf in southern Louisiana the prohibitive cost of draining the waterlogged land makes agriculture almost impossible. "Louisiana" © Emmanuel BUCHOT, Encarta, Wikipedia
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