An unspecified number of Cubans are nonreligious. The total number of adherents to Santería—Cuba’s main religious movement—is also unknown but may include between half and two-thirds of the population. The Santería religion includes many traditions of West African (mainly Yoruba) origin, notably praying to orishas (divine emissaries), many of which have been formally identified with Roman Catholic saints.
The Cuban government is not known to have placed extraordinary restrictions on Santería, perhaps because of the religion’s apolitical focus and its organization in small groups rather than large congregations.
About two-fifths of Cubans are Roman Catholics, at least nominally; although only a limited number actively practice the religion, there has been a resurgence of interest in Catholicism since the late 1990s. Protestants represent a small but rapidly growing fraction of the population. Only a handful of Jews and Muslims remain.
Prior to the revolution, Roman Catholicism was the dominant religion; however, it was permeated by Santería and held little influence in rural areas. In the early 1960s the revolutionary government and religious organizations openly confronted one another: the state was accused of being antireligious, partly because it had nationalized all parochial schools, whereas churches—with their mass followings—were feared as repositories of counterrevolution.
During that period about 70 percent of Roman Catholic priests, 90 percent of the nuns, some Protestant clergy, and all rabbis left the country or were deported. The government remove. Christmas from its list of national holidays in 1969. The constitution of 1976 guaranteed limited religious freedoms, although it proclaimed scientific materialism as the basis of the state and of the educational system.
Religious groups and the government entered a period of rapprochement in the mid-1980s. The constitution was amended in 1992 to remove references to scientific materialism, to ban many forms of religious discrimination, and to allow Catholics to join the Cuban Communist Party. Subsequently an increasing number of Cubans have participated in major Catholic rites, such as baptism and communion; however, the government has denied charters and construction permits to select churches, barred practitioners from military service, and closely monitored religious events. Christmas was restored as a national holiday in 1997, in anticipation of a highly publicized visit by Pope John Paul II the following year. "Cuba" © Emmanuel BUCHOT, Encarta, Wikipedia
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