The native peoples of the former Oklahoma Territory lost all of their reservations and most of their individual allotments before 1907 and the same was true of the Five Civilized Tribes of the old Indian Territory. Native peoples did, however, survive their poverty as well as efforts to forcibly assimilate them. After years of attempts to assimilate Native Americans, government authorities admitted their failure during the 1930s and federal and state legislation allowed Native Americans to restore their governments and to try to reclaim property that had been taken from them through force or fraud.
Arguing that Native Americans should be treated in the same way as other citizens, the United States Congress resolved in 1953 to gradually withdraw all federal support and responsibility for Native American affairs. The effect was disastrous for Native American cultures: federal services that Native Americans depended upon were withdrawn, and many Native Americans went on welfare. In the 1970s, however, the federal government encouraged the revitalization of Native American governments and tribal economies. Thirty-five tribal governments are based in Oklahoma, maintaining businesses ranging from tax-free tobacco shops to million-dollar bingo operations. "Oklahoma" © Emmanuel BUCHOT, Encarta, Wikipedia
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