The first humans appeared in Oklahoma about 15,000 years ago. These nomadic hunters were members of what archaeologists call the Clovis and Folsom cultures, after the name of the arrowheads they used to hunt animals. Later peoples lived in caves, projecting ledges, and overhanging bluffs, notably along the streams of northeastern Oklahoma and in the Panhandle. About 4000 bc these peoples moved to the riverbanks and built villages of mud and wattle dwellings.
Near Spiro, along the Arkansas border, archaeologists have discovered remains of a sophisticated culture that flourished from 500 bc to ad 1300. These peoples, called Mound Builders, built large earthen mounds as sites for their temples. Excavations of these mounds have revealed pottery, textiles, and metalwork with a high level of craftsmanship. Sometime after 1200 the Mound Builders were attacked by peoples from the western plains, and the Mound Builder culture declined. Native peoples identified by early European explorers indicate that communities of Wichita, Caddo, Quapaw, and Kiowa-Apache lived in scattered villages along the rivers of Oklahoma. "Oklahoma" © Emmanuel BUCHOT, Encarta, Wikipedia
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