According to the constitution of 1853, Argentina is a federal republic headed by a president. Legislative powers are vested in a National Congress consisting of a Senate and a Chamber of Deputies. All citizens 18 years of age or older are entitled to vote. The 1853 constitution has been revised on several occasions.
Since 1930 Argentina’s democratic institutions have been rescinded or suspended during different periods of authoritarian rule. In 1949 the constitution of 1853 was replaced by one devised by the government of Juan Perón. Under the Peronist constitution the president’s powers were enlarged, the provincial governors were made agents of the president, and the legislature and judiciary were reduced to impotence. After Perón was overthrown in 1955, the 1853 constitution was reinstituted.
However, as before Perón, several subsequent leaders suspended or disregarded provisions of the constitution that interfered with their goals. The military junta that took power in 1976 also incorporated a number of extraordinary laws into the constitution.
In 1983, when democratic political life was restored in Argentina, the 1853 constitution was once again reinstituted in essentially its original form. A constituent assembly, agreed to by the main political parties in the congress, was held in 1994 for the purpose of introducing a number of reforms to the original 1853 charter. "Argentina" © Emmanuel BUCHOT, Encarta, Wikipedia
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