The size of the Cuban population has been relatively stable since the late 20th century. Immigration historically contributed to the island’s population growth, but after 1960 the number of people leaving the country outnumbered new arrivals. Many migrated to Miami, Florida, or elsewhere because of political or economic pressures in Cuba. In 1980 alone about 125,000 escaped to the United States in small craft during the “Mariel boatlift,” and in the 1990s roughly 200,000 Cubans became legal U.S. immigrants. Large numbers have also migrated illegally to the United States, Canada, The Bahamas, Jamaica, Spain, and Mexico. The birth rate rose steadily from 1958 to 1963, attributable to higher standards of living and expectations among low-income groups, greater sexual freedom of females, and larger numbers of women marrying at younger ages.
However, mortality rates rose because, after physicians left the country en masse, medicines became scarce and contagion from diseases increased. From the mid-1960s the high birth rate declined as more women entered the labour force, the market for new houses and other goods diminished, sex education was required in schools, and military service was made compulsory for males 16 years and older. By 1978 the birth rate had dropped to less than half of its 1960s peak of 35 births per 1,000 people, and by the late 1990s it was markedly lower than the regional average. The mortality rate also dropped from the 1970s, as more physicians completed their training, the supply of medicines increased, and vaccinations controlled the spread of diseases. However, the mortality rate subsequently increased slightly as the population aged. The rates of birth and natural increase were about half the world average at the beginning of the 21st century. Britannica "Cuba" © Emmanuel BUCHOT, Encarta, Wikipedia
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