Photographic book

North-West Mounted Police


Railroad to the Pacific
Railroad to the Pacific

In 1873 Canada created the North-West Mounted Police, now the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, or Mounties, to help administer the territories and keep order there. Treaties were negotiated with the indigenous nations with the intention of opening the Great Plains to agriculture. Eleven numbered treaties were signed with the indigenous nations across Canada between 1850 and 1929, opening their lands to occupation. In general, the treaties provided some material compensation for transfer of lands to Euro-Canadians and provided for the establishment of reserves across the country. However, there were lapses in coverage: In British Columbia, treaties covered only a few small places, while in the Northwest and Yukon territories, treaties were not signed at all.

The once nomadic peoples of the plains were crowded into reserves. The reserve lands were allotted by headcount. The government typically was to provide schools, farm tools and agricultural assistance, and fishing and hunting rights as these had previously been enjoyed. Governments intent on assimilating the indigenous peoples honored few of these commitments. In some areas, for instance, the reserves were smaller than promised or were never provided at all. By 1901 Canada’s indigenous peoples numbered about 100,000, barely 2 percent of the country’s population, and they were confined to reserves everywhere outside the far north.

Railroad to the Pacific


Building the transcontinental railroad became the great challenge of the Confederation. The first attempt collapsed in the Pacific Scandal of 1872 and 1873.

Macdonald was driven from office after he was found to have accepted campaign funds from Montréal financier Sir Hugh Allen in exchange for the railroad contract. The election that followed made Alexander Mackenzie, a Liberal from Ontario, the new prime minister. Mackenzie’s Liberals were lukewarm about the railroad commitment and its huge costs, particularly during the economic recession of the mid-1870s. Macdonald and the Conservatives returned to power in 1878, the economy improved, and the railroad advanced.

Canadian Pacific Railway


The Canadian Pacific Railway, a private company supported by generous federal land grants and other assistance, was incorporated in 1881 to complete the project and operate the railroad. A dynamic American general manager, William C. Van Horne, pushed the rails across the plains, through the Canadian Shield, and into the previously unsurveyed Rockies. Particularly in British Columbia, laborers imported from China dug the tunnels, built the trestles, and laid the track, enduring deadly hazards at low pay. The transcontinental line was completed in 1885. In 1886 the Canadian Pacific extended the line 32 km (20 mi) from Port Moody and founded the Pacific coast metropolis of Vancouver as a new western end point. "Canada" © Emmanuel BUCHOT, Encarta, Wikipedia.

Photos of European countries to visit

Photos Czech Republic

Czech Republic

Photos Informations

Hungary Pictures

Hungary Pictures

Photos Informations

Spain photos

Spain photos

Photos Informations

Scotland Photos

Scotland Photos

Photos Informations

Photos of Portugal

Portugal

Photos Informations

Photos England

Photos England

Photos Informations

Pictures Amsterdam

Netherlands

Photos Informations

Photos of Asian countries to visit

India photos

India photos

Photos Informations

Photos of Hong Kong

Hong Kong

Photos Informations

Images from South Korea

South Korea

Photos Informations

Cambodia photos

Cambodia

Photos Informations

Photos of Japon

Photos of Japon

Photos Informations

Photos of Thailand

Photos of Thailand

Photos Informations

Photos of Taiwan

Photos of Taiwan

Photos Informations

Photos of America

Website information