For several months, Jackson served as military governor of Florida. Then Florida was organized as a territory with its present boundaries, and William P. DuVal was appointed its first territorial governor in 1822. Tallahassee was chosen as the site of the territorial capital in 1824. Settlers poured into the territory from neighboring states, and a typical Southern plantation system, based on cotton, corn, and tobacco, was established in northern Florida.
As the territory’s population increased, settlers pushed southward, displacing the Seminole. A treaty was forced on the Seminole in 1832 by which they were to move west of the Mississippi River within three years. However, many of them, led by Osceola, one of their war leaders, repudiated the treaty. Efforts to enforce it led to the Second Seminole War (1835-1842), which took the lives of 1,466 American soldiers and even more Seminole. When the fighting ended, most of the Seminole were removed from the state, but some took refuge in the Everglades, where many of their descendants now live. After the Third Seminole War (1855-1858), about half of those remaining were moved west. The rest stayed in Florida.
A state constitution was drafted in 1838, and Florida was admitted to the Union on March 3, 1845. William D. Moseley, a planter from Jefferson County, was elected first governor of the state of Florida.
Between 1845 and 1860 the number of inhabitants in the state increased from about 70,000 to more than 140,000. Most of the people lived in the northern part of the state, and vast areas of southern Florida remained uninhabited. Cotton, which was the chief cash crop, was produced by slave labor on plantations in middle Florida, between the Apalachicola and Suwannee rivers. Cattle were raised along the Peace and Saint Johns rivers. Some lumber, turpentine, leather, coarse cotton cloth, and salt were produced in the state. By 1861 the chief cities in northern Florida were linked by railroads. "Florida" © Emmanuel BUCHOT, Encarta, Wikipedia
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