South America
History of South America in 15th century : The Iberians
Latin America

In most ways the Spaniards and Portuguese shared the characteristics of other European peoples. They did, however, have some special features as inhabitants of the Mediterranean region and the southwestern part of Europe.

In the late 15th century most of Iberia was consolidated into three kingdoms—Portugal, Castile, and Aragon—of which the last two were united through royal marriage. But society itself was still quite provincial. The most important entity for purposes of organization and affiliation was the city and the large territory attached to it. More people were engaged in agricultural and pastoral pursuits than anything else, yet society was urban-centred. Each province focused on a city where not only most governmental, ecclesiastical, professional, commercial, and craft personnel congregated but where even the families who controlled the largest rural estates resided. The town council, or cabildo, united representatives of the most prominent families of the whole province, which was thus not divided along urban and rural lines. Rather, a strong solidarity prevailed, with the less successful flowing to the edges, the more successful back to the centre. The cities that the Iberians established in the Americas had the same characteristics, becoming the means of organizing huge territories around a European settlement.

Family

Some characteristics of the Iberian family differed from those found in the northern European family, and these were to have profound effects on relations between Iberians and indigenous people in the Americas. In the Iberian tradition, families were multilinear and existed at different levels. A marriage did not subordinate the wife’s family to the extent common in the north of Europe. Women kept their maiden names after marriage, and the dowry given with them remained their own property. Some of the children of a given pair might take the name of one parent, some the name of the other, the choice often being determined by who ranked highest socially. Rather than counting only from father to son to grandson, the Iberians kept track of a network of connections, as many made through the female line as the male.

Formal marriage was undertaken only when the partners, and especially the male, considered themselves fully established. Men often married quite late, whereas women, for whom the possibilities of advance were severely limited, tended to marry earlier. Many couples never married at all, so that their children were in the strict legal sense illegitimate. While they were waiting, late-marrying men would have relationships with women of lower rank, and children were born of these informal unions. The result was that, despite the ostensible disapproval of the church, Iberian society was full of informal partners and illegitimate children.

A complex set of practices had grown up for the treatment of the women and children involved in informal unions. When the man finally decided to marry, he would often provide for his informal partner, giving her something as a dowry so that she could herself get married to someone of lower rank. The father might recognize the children of these unions, giving them his name and some sort of protection. 

Cortés with Montezuma II
Cortés with Montezuma II.
They were not at the level of his legitimate children, but they were useful as trusted aides or stewards, and he might arrange marriages between the female children and his subordinates. In the Western Hemisphere, the lower-ranking women with whom Iberians had informal unions were often indigenous or African, and the children were racially mixed, but the Iberian patterns of treatment of those involved in the informal unions remained much the same, allowing for a vast amount of social and cultural contact and mixture. Britannica
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