Israel does not have a formal written constitution. Instead, its system of government is founded on a series of “basic laws” plus other legislation, executive orders, and parliamentary practice. The country is a democratic republic with a parliamentary system of government headed by a prime minister and involving numerous political parties representing a wide range of political positions.
Israel’s lawmaking body, the Knesset, or assembly, is a single-chamber legislature with 120 members who are elected every four years (or more frequently if a Knesset vote of nonconfidence in the government results in an early election). Members exercise important functions in standing committees. Hebrew and Arabic, the country’s two official languages, are used in all proceedings. The country’s prime minister is the head of government and is entrusted with the task of forming the cabinet, which is the government’s main policy-making and executive body. Israel has a strong cabinet, and its members may be—but need not be—members of the Knesset.
The president, who is the head of state, was traditionally elected by the Knesset for a five-year term that could be renewed only once; beginning in 2000, however, presidents were elected for a single, seven-year term. The president has no veto powers and exercises mainly ceremonial functions but has the authority to appoint certain key national officials, including state comptroller, governor of the Bank of Israel, judges, and justices of the Supreme Court.
The state comptroller—an independent officer elected by the Knesset before being appointed by the president—is responsible only to the Knesset and is the auditor of the government’s financial transactions and is empowered to enquire into the efficiency of its activities. The comptroller also acts as a national ombudsman.
Israel’s civil service gradually has become a politically neutral and professional body; previously, it tended to be drawn from, and to support, the party in power. The government’s extensive responsibilities and functions have acted to enlarge the bureaucracy. "Israel" © Emmanuel BUCHOT, Encarta, Wikipedia
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