Photographic book

Political changes


U.S. constitution in 1788
U.S. constitution in 1788

Another potential problem for members of the new government who prized order was the rapid growth and increasing democracy of American society. The revolutionary rhetoric of equality and natural rights seeped into every corner of American life. Even the poorest white men demanded the basic dignity that republics promised their citizens. Some women began to dream in that direction, as did slaves. In 1800 a slave named Gabriel led a slave revolt in Richmond, Virginia. His small army marched into the state capital under the banner “Death or Liberty.”

Religious change also contributed to the new democratic character of the republic. The established churches of colonial days (Congregationalists in New England, Anglicans—now renamed Episcopalians—further south) declined, in part because they were relatively cold and formal, and also because their status as established churches aroused democratic resentment.

At the same time, a great revival among the common people made Baptists and Methodists the largest American churches. Baptists grew from 400 to 2,700 congregations between 1783 and 1820; Methodists grew from 50 to 2,700 churches in the same years. These churches emphasized preaching over ritual, stressed Bible–reading congregations over educated ministers, favored spiritual freedom over old forms of hierarchical discipline, and encouraged conversions. Of crucial importance to the revival was the conversion of slaves and, in turn, the slaves’ transformation of Christianity into a religion of their own. By the second decade of the 19th century, most American slaves were Christians—primarily Baptists and Methodists.

Slaves and free blacks participated in the revival and were taken into white churches. But white prejudice and blacks’ desire for autonomy soon resulted in separate African American congregations. By the early 19th century black Methodist and Baptist congregations had become fundamental to a growing African American cultural identity.

Finally, at the western edges of this increasingly disorderly and democratic republic were Native American peoples who remained free and on their own land. The Shawnee, Delaware, and other peoples north of the Ohio River in particular had not been defeated in the Revolution and did not accept the jurisdiction of the United States over their land. These northwestern tribes could also rely on help from the British in Canada. Thus at the edges of the republic—in the forests of the interior and on the Atlantic Ocean—the new government faced important problems of diplomacy, problems that sometimes degenerated into war. Within the republic, the government had to contend with a democratic citizenry, many of whom deeply distrusted law and authority that came from a distant capital. "USA" © Emmanuel BUCHOT, Encarta, Wikipedia.

Photos of European countries to visit

Photos Czech Republic

Czech Republic

Photos Informations

Hungary Pictures

Hungary Pictures

Photos Informations

Spain photos

Spain photos

Photos Informations

Scotland Photos

Scotland Photos

Photos Informations

Photos of Portugal

Portugal

Photos Informations

Photos England

Photos England

Photos Informations

Pictures Amsterdam

Netherlands

Photos Informations

Photos of Asian countries to visit

India photos

India photos

Photos Informations

Photos of Hong Kong

Hong Kong

Photos Informations

Images from South Korea

South Korea

Photos Informations

Cambodia photos

Cambodia

Photos Informations

Photos of Japon

Photos of Japon

Photos Informations

Photos of Thailand

Photos of Thailand

Photos Informations

Photos of Taiwan

Photos of Taiwan

Photos Informations

Photos of America

Website information