The great majority of the people of England, like those of the British Isles in general, are descended from early Celtic and Iberian peoples and later invaders of the islands, including the Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Danes, and Normans. After 1945 substantial numbers of blacks and Asians immigrated into the country. England, once a nation of small rural villages, has become highly urban since the early 19th century.
The population of England in 2018 was 54,708,000. The overall population density of 384 persons per sq km (995 persons per sq mi) was one of the highest in the world.
For local governmental purposes, England is divided into 34 counties, 46 unitary authorities, and Greater London (established in 1965 as a separate administrative entity). The counties are subdivided into districts, which together are further divided into parishes. Each level of local government is presided over by a council, the members of which are elected to four-year terms. In districts that have the title of city or borough, the chairperson of the council is the mayor. The present counties and former counties of England are described in separate articles.
After London, Birmingham, population 976,400 (2001), is the second largest city and is the center of an extensive industrial area that contains major concentrations of the automotive and other industries. Liverpool (439,500) is the second largest port and a major cargo export outlet for Britain; it is also a great commercial and industrial center. Manchester (392,900) is the chief commercial hub of the cotton and synthetic-fiber textile industries, as well as an important financial and commercial center and a major port. Among other important cities are Sheffield (513,100), the heavy engineering center famous for its high-quality steels, cutlery, and tools, and Bristol (380,600), a leading port and commercial center. "England" © Emmanuel BUCHOT, Encarta, Wikipedia
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