Photographic book

Societal changes


Industrialization in France
Industrialization in France

Living primarily in cities and larger villages, the middle class blended imperceptibly at its upper end with the aristocracy. This group of so-called notables reaped most of the benefits of industrialization and dominated politics until the Third Republic in the 1870s. At its lower end, the middle class fused with the upper reaches of the working class. Between these extremes emerged a large class of white-collar workers with modest incomes derived from small businesses, retail shops, and clerical and professional jobs. This class formed the backbone of the republican constituency in the late 19th century.

In families of the middle class, women were not expected to work in salaried positions outside the home. This was particularly true for women who were married and had children. But primarily because of economic necessity, 68 percent of all women over age 16 and 56 percent of all married women held salaried jobs in 1906; these numbers were, however, much lower in nonagricultural areas.

Despite their critical contributions to the economy, women had far fewer rights than men. Indeed, they constituted the largest disadvantaged group in a nation that had proclaimed the equality of rights in 1789. Under the Code Napoléon, husbands had full control over family property, including dowries brought by wives into their marriages. Divorce was illegal from 1816 until 1884, and the legal and social consequences of adultery were much more severe for women than for men. Secondary education was unavailable to most females until the 1880s. The right to vote was extended to women only in 1945 after a half-century of agitation. "France" © Emmanuel BUCHOT, Encarta, Wikipedia.

Photos of European countries to visit

Photos Czech Republic

Czech Republic

Photos Informations

Hungary Pictures

Hungary Pictures

Photos Informations

Spain photos

Spain photos

Photos Informations

Scotland Photos

Scotland Photos

Photos Informations

Photos of Portugal

Portugal

Photos Informations

Photos England

Photos England

Photos Informations

Pictures Amsterdam

Netherlands

Photos Informations

Photos of Asian countries to visit

India photos

India photos

Photos Informations

Photos of Hong Kong

Hong Kong

Photos Informations

Images from South Korea

South Korea

Photos Informations

Cambodia photos

Cambodia

Photos Informations

Photos of Japon

Photos of Japon

Photos Informations

Photos of Thailand

Photos of Thailand

Photos Informations

Photos of Taiwan

Photos of Taiwan

Photos Informations

Photos of America

Website information