Egypt, officially Arab Republic of Egypt (from 1958 to 1971, United Arab Republic), republic located in north-eastern Africa and the Sinai Peninsula, in the Middle East. It is bordered on the north by the Mediterranean Sea, on the east by Israel and the Red Sea, on the south by Sudan, and on the west by Libya. The country has a maximum length from north to south of about 1,085 km (675 mi) and a maximum width, near the southern border, of about 1,255 km (780 mi). It has a total area of about 997,739 sq km (385,229 sq mi). Cairo is the capital and largest city.
Egypt is the offspring of the River Nile, whose waters and rich silts provided the basis for the development of one of the world’s first great civilizations, that of ancient Egypt, with a recorded history dating back to about 3200 bc. The History section below covers Egypt from ancient times, including the Dynastic Period (3000 bc-332 bc), the Hellenistic Period (332 bc-30 bc), Roman and Byzantine rule (30 bc-ad 642), the Caliphate and the Mamelukes (642-1517), Ottoman domination (1082-1882), and British colonialism (1882-1952), as well as modern, independent Egypt (1952 to the present). © "Egypt" © Emmanuel Buchot and Encarta
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