Australia is both the flattest continent and, except for Antarctica, the driest. Seen from the air, its vast plains, sometimes the colour of dried blood, more often tawny like a lion’s skin, may seem to be one huge desert. One can fly the roughly 2,000 miles (3,200 km) to Sydney from Darwin in the north or to Sydney from Perth in the west without seeing a town or anything but the most scattered and minute signs of human habitation for vast stretches. A good deal of the central depression and western plateau is indeed desert. Yet appearances can be deceptive. The red and black soil plains of Queensland and New South Wales have long supported the world’s greatest wool industry, and some of the most arid and forbidding areas of Australia conceal great mineral wealth.
Moreover, the coastal rim is, almost everywhere, exempted from the prevailing flatness and aridity. In particular the east coast, where European settlement began and where the majority of Australians now live, is topographically quite diverse and is comparatively well watered and fertile.
Inland from the coast runs a chain of highlands, known as the Great Dividing Range, from Cape York in northern Queensland to the southern seaboard of Tasmania. From the coast this range, which may be anything from 20 miles to 200 miles (30 to 300 km) distant, often appears as a bold range of mountains, though few of its peaks exceed 5,000 feet (1,500 metres). In fact, it is more like the escarpment of a giant plateau, formed of gently rolling hills, which slopes imperceptibly down to the western plains.
There are similar, though smaller, stretches of hilly, well-watered land all around the rim of the continent except on the south coast where the Nullarbor Plain stretches to the sea, but everywhere precipitation diminishes rapidly as one penetrates farther from the coast.
In this huge continent there are wide variations in landforms and climate. The thickly wooded ranges of the Great Divide have little in common with the treeless, sun-baked plains of the Inland. There is a vast difference between the red rocks and monumental hills of central Australia and the tropical rainforests and sugar plantations of northern Queensland. To many visitors, Australia may not seem a pretty country, but it has a unique and haunting beauty that exerts a powerful fascination on those who get to know it.
The Australian Heritage Commission Act of 1975 established a federal agency to develop interest in a National Estate of listed places. Such places would be selected mainly on the basis of aesthetic, historical, scientific, or social significance. The process was not intended to guarantee any area or site against development, but the growing register was, nevertheless, made to serve that purpose on occasion. The UNESCO list of World Heritage sites carries more political and legal weight, and areas so classified have been protected by the federal governments in the face of furious opposition from their state partners. More than a dozen Australian landmarks, representing every state and territory, have been added to the list, including the Great Barrier Reef, Kakadu National Park, Shark Bay, Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park (which contains the great red mass of Ayers Rock, a sacred site of the Aboriginals), rainforest reserves in central-eastern Australia, the Tasmanian Wilderness, and fossil mammal sites at Riversleigh and Naracoorte. Territorial disputes have arisen over proposals for the Great Barrier Reef and natural rainforest enclaves in Queensland and Tasmania. Britannica enciclopedia "Australia" © Emmanuel BUCHOT, Encarta, Wikipedia
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